##### Personal tools

# Catalog Description of Electrical Engineering Courses

(based on Registrar's Listing)

## Lower Division

**1. Electrical Engineering Physics I. (4)** Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: Mathematics 32A, 32B, Physics 1A, 1B. Introduction to modern physics and electromagnetism with an engineering orientation. Emphasis on mathematical tools necessary to express and solve Maxwell equations. Relation of these concepts to waves propagating in free space, including dielectrics and optical systems. Letter grading.**2. Physics for Electrical Engineers. (4) ** Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 1. Introduction to concepts of modern physics necessary to understand solid-state devices, including elementary quantum theory, Fermi energies, and concepts of electrons in solids. Discussion of electrical properties of semiconductors leading to operation of junction devices. Letter grading.

**Lecture, two hours. Introduction to field of electrical engineering; research and applications across several areas, such as communications, control, electromagnetics, embedded computing, engineering optimization, integrated circuits, MEMS, nanotechnology, photonics and optoelectronics, plasma electronics, signal processing, and solid-state electronics. P/NP grading.**

3. Introduction to Electrical Engineering. (2)

3. Introduction to Electrical Engineering. (2)

**10. Circuit Analysis I. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: course 1 or Physics 1C, Mathematics 33A, 33B. Introduction to linear circuit analysis. Resistive circuits, Kirchhoff laws, operational amplifiers, node and loop analysis, Thevenin and Norton theorem, capacitors and inductors, duality, first-order circuits, step response, second-order circuits, natural response, forced response. Letter grading.

**M16. Logic Design of Digital Systems. (4)**(Same as Computer Science M51A.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Introduction to digital systems. Specification and implementation of combinational and sequential systems. Standard logic modules and programmable logic arrays. Specification and implementation of algorithmic systems: data and control sections. Number systems and arithmetic algorithms. Error control codes for digital information. Letter grading.

## Upper Division

**100. Electrical and Electronic Circuits. (4) **Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: course 1 or Physics 1C, Mathematics 33A, 33B. Electrical quantities, linear circuit elements, circuit principles, signal waveforms, transient and steady state circuit behavior, semiconductor diodes and transistors, small signal models, and operational amplifiers. Letter grading.**101. Engineering Electromagnetics. (4)** Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: course 1 or Physics 1C, Mathematics 32A and 32B, or 33A and 33B. Electromagnetic field concepts, waves and phasors, transmission lines and Smith chart, transient responses, vector analysis, introduction to Maxwell equations, static and quasi-static electric and magnetic fields. Letter grading.**102. Systems and Signals. (4) **Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: course 1 (or Physics 1C), Mathematics 33A, 33B. Elements of differential equations, first- and second-order equations, variation of parameters method and method of undetermined coefficients, existence and uniqueness. Systems: input/output description, linearity, time-invariance, and causality. Impulse response functions, superposition and convolution integrals. Laplace transforms and system functions. Fourier series and transforms. Frequency responses, responses of systems to periodic signals. Sampling theorem. Letter grading.**103. Applied Numerical Computing. (4) ** Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: Civil Engineering 15 or Computer Science 31 or Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 20, Mathematics 33A, 33B (33B may be taken concurrently). Introduction to numerical computing and analysis. Floating point representation and round-off error; numerical methods for systems of linear equations; methods for systems of nonlinear equations. Introduction to numerical optimization: least squares, with applications to interpolation, approximation, and numerical integration; linear programming. Letter grading.

**110. Circuit Analysis II. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 10. Corequisite: course 102. Sinusoidal excitation and phasors, AC steady state analysis, AC steady state power, network functions, poles and zeros, frequency response, mutual inductance, ideal transformer, application of Laplace transforms to circuit analysis. Letter grading.

**110L. Circuit Measurements Laboratory. (2)**Laboratory, four hours; outside study, two hours. Requisite: course 100 or 110. Experiments with basic circuits containing resistors, capacitors, inductors, and op-amps. Ohm's law voltage and current division, Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits, superposition, transient and steady state analysis, and frequency response principles. Letter grading.

**113. Digital Signal Processing. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 102. Relationship between continuous-time and discrete-time signals. Z-transform. Discrete Fourier transform. Fast Fourier transform. Structures for digital filtering. Introduction to digital filter design techniques. Letter grading.

**113D. Digital Signal Processing Design. (4)**(Formerly numbered 113L.) Laboratory, four hours; outside study, four hours. Requisite: course 113. Real-time implementation of digital signal processing algorithms on digital processor chips. Experiments involving A/D and D/A conversion, aliasing, digital filtering, sinusoidal oscillators, Fourier transforms, and finite wordlength effects. Course project involving original design and implementation of signal processing systems for communications, speech, audio, or video using DSP chip. Letter grading.

**114. Speech and Image Processing Systems Design. (4)**(Formerly numbered 114D.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 113. Design principles of speech and image processing systems. Speech production, analysis, and modeling in first half of course; design techniques for image enhancement, filtering, and transformation in second half. Lectures supplemented by laboratory implementation of speech and image processing tasks. Letter grading.

**115A. Analog Electronic Circuits I. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 110. Review of physics and operation of diodes and bipolar and MOS transistors. Equivalent circuits and models of semiconductor devices. Analysis and design of single-stage amplifiers. DC biasing circuits. Small-signal analysis. Operational amplifier systems. Letter grading.

**Laboratory, four hours; outside study, two hours. Requisites: courses 110L, 115A. Experimental determination of device characteristics, resistive diode circuits, single-stage amplifiers, compound transistor stages, effect of feedback on single-stage amplifiers. Letter grading.**

115AL. Analog Electronics Laboratory I. (2)

115AL. Analog Electronics Laboratory I. (2)

**115B. Analog Electronic Circuits II. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 115A. Analysis and design of differential amplifiers in bipolar and CMOS technologies. Current mirrors and active loads. Frequency response of amplifiers. Feedback and its properties. Stability issues and frequency compensation. Letter grading.

**Laboratory, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 115AL, 115B. Experimental and computer studies of multistage, wideband, tuned, and power amplifiers, and multiloop feedback amplifiers. Introduction to thick film hybrid techniques. Construction of amplifier using hybrid thick film techniques. Letter grading.**

115BL. Analog Electronics Laboratory II. (4)

115BL. Analog Electronics Laboratory II. (4)

**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: course 115A, Computer Science M51A. Recommended: course 115B. Transistor-level digital circuit analysis and design. Modern logic families (static CMOS, pass-transistor, dynamic logic), integrated circuit (IC) layout, digital circuits (logic gates, flipflops/latches, counters, etc.), computer-aided simulation of digital circuits. Letter grading.**

115C. Digital Electronic Circuits. (4)

115C. Digital Electronic Circuits. (4)

**Lecture, four hours; discussion, four hours; outside study, four hours. Requisites: courses 115B, 115C. Applications of distributed circuits. Operational amplifier applications and limitations. Power amplifiers. Feedback and stability. Precision analog circuits. Analysis and design of operational amplifiers. Noise in electronic circuits. Design of oscillators, phase-locked loops, and frequency synthesizers. Introduction to design of analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. Letter grading.**

115D. Design Studies in Electronic Circuits. (4)

115D. Design Studies in Electronic Circuits. (4)

**M116C. Computer Systems Architecture. (4)**(Same as Computer Science M151B.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: course M16 or Computer Science M51A, Computer Science 33. Recommended: course M116L or Computer Science M152A, Computer Science 111. Computer system organization and design, implementation of CPU datapath and control, instruction set design, memory hierarchy (caches, main memory, virtual memory) organization and management, input/output subsystems (bus structures, interrupts, DMA), performance evaluation, pipelined processors. Letter grading.

**(Same as Computer Science M152A.) Laboratory, four hours; outside study, two hours. Requisite: course M16 or Computer Science M51A. Hands-on design, implementation, and debugging of digital logic circuits, use of computer-aided design tools for schematic capture and simulation, implementation of complex circuits using programmed array logic, design projects. Letter grading.**

M116L. Introductory Digital Design Laboratory. (2)

M116L. Introductory Digital Design Laboratory. (2)

**M117. Computer Networks: Physical Layer. (6)**(Same as Computer Science M117.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, four hours; outside study, 10 hours. Not open to students with credit for course M171L. Introduction to fundamental data communication concepts underlying and supporting modern networks, with focus on physical and media access layers of network protocol stack. Systems include high-speed LANs (e.g., fast and giga Ethernet), optical DWDM (dense wavelength division multiplexing), time division SONET networks, wireless LANs (IEEE802.11), and ad hoc wireless and personal area networks (e.g., Bluetooth). Experimental laboratory sessions included. Letter grading.

**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Introduction to principles of operation of bipolar and MOS transistors, equivalent circuits, high-frequency behavior, voltage limitations. Letter grading.**

121B. Principles of Semiconductor Device Design. (4)

121B. Principles of Semiconductor Device Design. (4)

**(Formerly numbered 122AL.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, four hours. Requisites: courses 2, 121B (may be taken concurrently). Design fabrication and characterization of p-n junction and transistors. Students perform various processing tasks such as wafer preparation, oxidation, diffusion, metallization, and photolithography. Letter grading.**

122L. Semiconductor Devices Laboratory. (4)

122L. Semiconductor Devices Laboratory. (4)

**123A. Fundamentals of Solid-State I. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 2 or Physics 1C. Limited to junior/senior engineering majors. Fundamentals of solid-state, introduction to quantum mechanics and quantum statistics applied to solid-state. Crystal structure, energy levels in solids, and band theory and semiconductor properties. Letter grading.

**123B. Fundamentals of Solid-State II. (4)**Lecture, three hours; outside study, nine hours. Requisite: course 123A. Discussion of solid-state properties, lattice vibrations, thermal properties, dielectric, magnetic, and superconducting properties. Letter grading.

**124. Semiconductor Physical Electronics. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 123A. Band structure of semiconductors, experimental probes of basic band structure parameters, statistics of carriers, carrier transport properties at low fields, excess carrier transport properties, carrier recombination mechanisms, heterojunction properties. Letter grading.

**128. Principles of Nanoelectronics. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, four hours; outside study, four hours. Requisites: course 1, or Physics 1A and 1B. Introduction to fundamentals of nanoscience for electronics nanosystems. Principles of fundamental quantities: electron charge, effective mass, Bohr magneton, and spin, as well as theoretical approaches. From these nanoscale components, discussion of basic behaviors of nanosystems such as analysis of dynamics, variability, and noise, contrasted with those of scaled CMOS. Incorporation of design project in which students are challenged to design electronics nanosystems. Letter grading.

**129D. Semiconductor Processing and Device Design. (4)**Lecture, two hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 121B. Introduction to CAD tools used in integrated circuit processing and device design. Device structure optimization tool is based on PISCES; process integration tool is based on SUPREM. Course familiarizes students with the tools. Using CAD tools, a CMOS process integration to be designed. Letter grading.

**131A. Probability. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, 10 hours. Requisites: course 102, Mathematics 32B, 33B. Introduction to basic concepts of probability, including random variables and vectors, distributions and densities, moments, characteristic functions, and limit theorems. Applications to communication, control, and signal processing. Introduction to computer simulation and generation of random events. Letter grading.

**131B. Introduction to Stochastic Processes. (4)**Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 131A. Introduction to concepts of stochastic processes, emphasizing continuous- and discrete-time stationary processes, correlation function and spectral density, linear transformation, and mean-square estimation. Applications to communication, control, and signal processing. Introduction to computer simulation and analysis of stochastic processes. Letter grading.

**132A. Introduction to Communication Systems. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: courses 102, 113, 131A. Properties of signals and noise. Baseband pulse and digital signaling. Bandpass signaling techniques. Communication systems: digital transmission, frequency-division multiplexing and telephone systems, satellite communication systems. Performance of communication systems in presence of noise. Letter grading.

**132B. Data Communications and Telecommunication Networks. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 131A. Layered communications architectures. Queueing system modeling and analysis. Error control, flow and congestion control. Packet switching, circuit switching, and routing. Network performance analysis and design. Multiple-access communications: TDMA, FDMA, polling, random access. Local, metropolitan, wide area, integrated services networks. Letter grading.

**136. Introduction to Engineering Optimization Techniques. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: course 103, Mathematics 32A, 33A. Introduction to optimization techniques for engineering and science students. Minimization of unconstrained functions of several variables: steepest descent, Newton/Raphson, conjugate gradient, and quasi-Newton methods. Rates of convergence. Methods for constrained minimization: introduction to linear programming and gradient projection methods. Lagrangian methods. Students expected to use SEASnet computers. Letter grading.

**141. Principles of Feedback Control. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 102. Mathematical modeling of physical control systems in form of differential equations and transfer functions. Design problems, system performance indices of feedback control systems via classical techniques, root-locus and frequency-domain methods. Computer-aided solution of design problems from real world. Letter grading.

**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 102. State-space methods of linear system analysis and synthesis, with application to problems in networks, control, and system modeling. Letter grading.**

142. Linear Systems: State-Space Approach. (4)

142. Linear Systems: State-Space Approach. (4)

**CM150. Introduction to Micromachining and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). (4)**(Formerly numbered M150.) (Same as Biomedical Engineering CM150 and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering CM180.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20L, Physics 1A, 1B, 1C, 4AL, 4BL. Corequisite: course CM150L. Introduction to micromachining technologies and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Methods of micromachining and how these methods can be used to produce variety of MEMS, including microstructures, microsensors, and microactuators. Students design microfabrication processes capable of achieving desired MEMS device. Concurrently scheduled with course CM250A. Letter grading.

**150DL. Photonic Sensor Design Laboratory. (4)**Lecture, two hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Limited to seniors. Multidisciplinary course with lectures and laboratory experiments on optical sensors. Fundamentals of intensity and interference-based transducers, polarimeters, multiplexing and sensor networks, physical and biomedical sensors. Design and implementation of optical gyroscope, computer interfacing, and signal processing. Letter grading.

**CM150L. Introduction to Micromachining and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Laboratory. (2)**(Formerly numbered M150L.) (Same as Biomedical Engineering CM150L and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering CM180L.) Lecture, one hour; laboratory, four hours; outside study, one hour. Requisites: Chemistry 20A, 20L, Physics 1A, 1B, 1C, 4AL, 4BL. Corequisite: course CM150. Hands-on introduction to micromachining technologies and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) laboratory. Methods of micromachining and how these methods can be used to produce variety of MEMS, including microstructures, microsensors, and microactuators. Students go through process of fabricating MEMS device. Concurrently scheduled with course CM250L. Letter grading.

**161. Electromagnetic Waves. (4)**Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 101. Time-varying fields and Maxwell equations, plane wave propagation and interaction with media, energy flow and Poynting vector, guided waves in waveguides, phase and group velocity, radiation and antennas. Letter grading.

**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 161. Basic properties of transmitting and receiving antennas and antenna arrays. Array synthesis. Adaptive arrays. Friis transmission formula, radar equations. Cell-site and mobile antennas, bandwidth budget. Noise in communication systems (transmission lines, antennas, atmospheric, etc.). Cell-site and mobile antennas, cell coverage for signal and traffic, interference, multipath fading, ray bending, and other propagation phenomena. Letter grading.**

162A. Wireless Communication Links and Antennas. (4)

162A. Wireless Communication Links and Antennas. (4)

**163A. Introductory Microwave Circuits. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 161. Transmission lines description of waveguides, impedance transformers, power dividers, directional couplers, filters, hybrid junctions, nonreciprocal devices. Letter grading.

**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 121B. MESFET, HEMT, HBT, IMPATT, Gunn, small signal models, noise model, large signal model, loadpull method, parameter extraction technique. Letter grading.**

163B. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Active Devices. (4)

163B. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Active Devices. (4)

**Lecture, three hours; outside study, nine hours. Requisites: courses 115A, 161. Theory and design of microwave transistor amplifiers and oscillators; stability, noise, distortion. Letter grading.**

163C. Active Microwave Circuits. (4)

163C. Active Microwave Circuits. (4)

**164D. Microwave Wireless Design. (4)**(Formerly numbered 164DL.) Lecture, one hour; laboratory, four hours; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 161. Microwave integrated circuit design from wireless system perspective, with focus on (1) use of microwave circuit simulation tools, (2) design of wireless frontend circuits including low noise amplifier, mixer, and power amplifier, (3) knowledge and skills required in wireless integrated circuit characterization and implementation. Letter grading.

**164L. Microwave Wireless Laboratory. (2)**(Formerly numbered 164AL.) Lecture, one hour; laboratory, three hours; outside study, three hours. Requisite: course 161. Measurement techniques and instrumentation for active and passive microwave components; cavity resonators, waveguides, wavemeters, slotted lines, directional couplers. Design, fabrication, and characterization of microwave circuits in microstrip and coaxial systems. Letter grading.

**(Same as Computer Science M171L.) Laboratory, four to eight hours; outside study, two to four hours. Recommended preparation: course M116L. Limited to seniors. Interpretation of analog-signaling aspects of digital systems and data communications through experience in using contemporary test instruments to generate and display signals in relevant laboratory setups. Use of oscilloscopes, pulse and function generators, baseband spectrum analyzers, desktop computers, terminals, modems, PCs, and workstations in experiments on pulse transmission impairments, waveforms and their spectra, modem and terminal characteristics, and interfaces. Letter grading.**

M171L. Data Communication Systems Laboratory. (2 to 4)

M171L. Data Communication Systems Laboratory. (2 to 4)

**172. Introduction to Lasers and Quantum Electronics. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 101. Physical applications and principles of lasers, Gaussian optics, resonant cavities, atomic radiation, laser oscillation and amplification, cw and pulsed lasers. Letter grading.

**172L. Laser Laboratory. (4)**Laboratory, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite or corequisite: course 172. Properties of lasers, including saturation, gain, mode structure. Laser applications, including optics, modulation, communication, holography, and interferometry. Letter grading.

**173. Photonic Devices. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 101. Introduction to basic principles of photonic devices. Topics include crystal optics, dielectric optical waveguides, waveguide couplers, electro-optic devices, magneto-optic devices, acousto-optic devices, second-harmonic generation, optical Kerr effect, optical switching devices. Letter grading.

**173D. Photonics and Communication Design. (4)**(Formerly numbered 173DL.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 102. Recommended: course 132A. Introduction to measurement of basic photonic devices, including LEDs, lasers, detectors, and amplifiers; fiber-optic fundamentals and measurement of fiber systems. Modulation techniques, including A.M., F.M., phase and suppressed carrier methods. Letter grading.

**174. Semiconductor Optoelectronics. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 172. Introduction to semiconductor optoelectronic devices for optical communications, interconnects, and signal processing. Basic optical properties of semiconductors, pin photodiodes, avalanche photodiode detectors (APD), light-emitting diodes (LED), semiconductor lasers, optical modulators and amplifiers, and typical photonic systems. Letter grading.

**175. Fourier Optics. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 102, 161. Two-dimensional linear systems and Fourier transforms. Foundation of diffraction theory. Analysis of optical imaging systems. Spatial filtering and optical information processing. Wavefront reconstruction and holography. Letter grading.

**176. Lasers in Biomedical Applications. (4)**Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 101. Study of different types of laser systems and their operation. Examination of their roles in current and projected biomedical applications. Specific capabilities of laser radiation to be related to each example. Letter grading.

**180D. Systems Design. (4)**(Formerly numbered 190D.) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, two hours; outside study, eight hours. Limited to senior Electrical Engineering majors. Advanced systems design integrating communications, control, and signal processing subsystems. Different project to be assigned yearly in which student teams create high-performance designs that manage trade-offs among subsystems. Letter grading.

**181D. Robotic Systems Design. (4)**Lecture, two hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses M16, 110L, M116L (or Computer Science M152A), Computer Science 31, 33. Recommended: courses 113, 141, Computer Science 35L. Design of robotics systems that combine embedded hardware, software, mechanical subsystems, and fundamental algorithms for sensing and control to expose students to basic concepts in robotics and current state of art. Lecture closely tied to design laboratory where students work in teams to construct series of subsystems leading to final project. Letter grading.

**184D. Independent Group Project Design. (4)**Laboratory, 10 hours; discussion, two hours. Requisites: courses M16, 110, 110L. Course centered on group project that runs year long to give students intensive experience on hardware design, microcontroller programming, and project coordination. Several projects based on autonomous robots that traverse small mazes and courses are offered yearly and target regional competitions. Students may submit proposals that are evaluated and approved by faculty members. Topics include sensing circuits and amplifier-based design, microcontroller programming, feedback control, actuation, and motor control. Letter grading.

**M185. Introduction to Plasma Electronics. (4)**(Same as Physics M122.) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 101 or Physics 110A. Senior-level introductory course on electrodynamics of ionized gases and applications to materials processing, generation of coherent radiation and particle beams, and renewable energy sources. Letter grading.

**188. Special Courses in Electrical Engineering. (4)**Seminar, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Special topics in electrical engineering for undergraduate students that are taught on experimental or temporary basis, such as those taught by resident and visiting faculty members. May be repeated once for credit with topic or instructor change. Letter grading.

**Seminar, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Designed for undergraduate students who are part of research group. Discussion of research methods and current literature in field. Letter grading.**

194. Research Group Seminars: Electrical Engineering. (2 to 4)

194. Research Group Seminars: Electrical Engineering. (2 to 4)

**Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research or investigation under guidance of faculty mentor. Culminating paper or project required. May be repeated for credit with school approval. Individual contract required; enrollment petitions available in Office of Academic and Student Affairs. Letter grading.**

199. Directed Research in Electrical Engineering. (2 to 8)

199. Directed Research in Electrical Engineering. (2 to 8)